Calligraphic Cursive Styles

The cursive script dates back at least to the first decades of the Muslim era. The early examples, however, lacked elegance and discipline and were used mainly for secular and practical, rather than aesthetic, purposes. In a slow but continuous process, older styles were perfected, while new styles were invented to meet the demands of different occasion.

Naskh, which means “copying,” was developed in the 10th century, and refined into a fine art form in Turkey in the 16th century. Since then it became generally accepted for writing the Quran. Naskh is legible and clear and was adapted as the preferred style for typesetting and printing. It is a small script whose lines are thin and letter shapes are round.

Thuluth is a more impressive, stately calligraphic style which was often used for titles or epigrams rather than lengthy texts. Its forms evolved over the centuries, and many variations are found on architectural monuments, as well as on glass, metalwork, textiles, and wood. Mamluk Thuluth of the 14th century was heavy and large, while the Ottomans preferred the simpler more refined version still practiced today.

The traditional classification of the main styles includes in addition to the above Muhaqqaq which is less round than Thuluth; Rayhani which is similar to a small Muhaqqaq; Tawqi which has many ligatures, and a miniature version of it called Riqa’ used mostly for personal and informal occasions. All these styles are now obsolete and rarely used.

Nastaliq developed in Iran in the 14 th and 15 th centuries. It is the most fluid and expressive of the scripts presented here, and is used extensively in copying romantic and mystical epics in Persian. Nastaliq has very short verticals without any “serifs,” and deep curved horizontals. It slants to the right in contrast to all the other styles which slant to the left.

Riq’a, the simpler style of everyday writing is very economical and easy to write. It replaces the above mentioned Riqa’, and is popular for writing both Turkish and Arabic.
There are still many other styles used in different places and times that can’t be all mentioned in this limited space, but they combine to form a fantastic wealth of artistic creativity and ever renewing vigor.

Article and figures by Mamoun Sakkal

Check Also

Calligraphic Sheets and Albums (Qit’a and Muraqqa)

Qit’a and Muraqqa (Calligraphic Sheets and Albums) The calligraphic works written on a normal, book-size …

Nabi Muhammad (SAW) in Calligraphy

The Arabic script was not greatly developed in the pre-Islamic era; it was not used …

2 comments
Muallim Rashaad Sallie
Muallim Rashaad Sallie

As Salaamu Alaykum I wish there were classes for Arabic Calligraphy in Newcastle. I studied English Calligraphy but would love to do this as well.

Muallimah Sauda
Muallimah Sauda

Was Salaamu Alaykum Yes I wish so myself. I am particularly fond of the Naskh khatt. Growing up, I read books on Arabic Calligraphy. I admired the artists great work and it always boggles the mind if Abu al Aswad ad Du'ali didn't contribute to Arabic... What would present-day Arabic writing look like? My father, also one who studied English calligraphy, would hold my hand while I tried to practice my Arabic hand writing. I also liked Kufic script. As a teenager I would try my hand at Kufic and write the names of my family members and friends copying each letter from calligraphy books. It's something I always wanted to learn.